The pituitary hormone secretes human growth hormone (also known as somatotropin). HGH was originally discovered to be responsible in childhood growth regulation.
It is also responsible for many other functions, including regulating sugar and fat metabolism, bone development, and cellular renewal. Research suggests it could play an important role in the function of the heart.
One chain of 191 amino acid chains makes up human growth hormone. It is produced in the brain, but secreted into the bloodstream.
It is controlled by a complex combination of hormones. These include growth hormone-releasing hormones (GHRH), somatostatin, which is produced throughout the body, as well as ghrelin, produced in the gastrointestinal system.
HGH is released by the pituitary in pulsed bursts, which can vary hourly. Exercise, trauma, and sleeping are all associated with higher daily levels of HGH. Night is when the highest levels of HGH are attained. HGH levels peak at night. There are amazing hgh supplements that solve this complication.
HGH plays a major role in two processes: growth and metabolism. HGH stimulates bone growth and cartilage growth, particularly during periods of rapid growth in childhood.
The signals that HGH sends to chondrocytes, bone-forming cells and osteoblasts are for increased replication. This allows for growth via the activation of mitogen-activated proteins (MAP) kinases called ERKs (extracellular-sign-regulated kinases).
This intracellular signaling cascade activates phosphorylation. This causes a cascade protein activation that leads to increased gene transcription in the affected cells. It also results in increased gene replication.
HGH also up-regulates insulin like growth factor 1. This causes cells to increase protein synthesis and amino acid uptake. This is anabolic.
HGH can also reduce insulin’s ability of taking up glucose from the muscles and peripheral tissues. HGH also reduces insulin’s ability to take up glucose in muscles and peripheral tissues. 2
Growth Hormone Disorders
Too much or too little HGH can cause growth hormone disorders. Hypersecretion from the pituitary of HGH can lead to gigantism and acromegaly. HGH deficiency can cause short stature in children and GH deficiency syndrome for adults.
Most commonly, Acromegaly is caused by a brain tumor–an HGH-secreting pituitary tumor. HGH secretion continues to increase bone density in closed epiphyseal growth plates. This includes flat bones on the skull and sternum as well as the hands and feet.
Deep nasolabial furrows are common, as well as prominent supraorbital and lip ridges. The most common complaint is that hats and gloves no longer fit due to swelling in the head and hands. However, headaches and excessive sweating are also common.
A large mass can lead to reproductive disorders or cause vision problems. HGH can cause bone growth and heart tissue hardening in a process called biventricular-concentric hypertrophy, which puts you at risk for heart failure.
HGH is known to counteract the effects of insulin on glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism. This makes it a strong association with diabetes mellitus 2 and hyperlipidemia. The treatment includes surgery and radiation therapy to treat the underlying adenoma.
Giantitis is when the HGH produced by the underlying pituitary tumor acts on the long bones prior to the growth plate of long bone closes. This is a condition that usually manifests in childhood, as epiphyseal closing occurs before the age of adulthood. Acromegaly is similar in its organ and metabolic effects.
idiopathic HTMLGH deficiency occurs most often in children. HGH deficiency can also occur in adulthood, often with a host of other hypopituitary deficiencies. HGH deficiency can often be caused by a prolactinoma (pituitary tumors that secrete too much hormone prolactin), although radiation or surgery may also be an option.
Because adult-onset HGH deficiencies are more difficult to diagnose than idiopathic HGH deficiencies, the symptoms are not specific and there is no one identifier that can be used as a diagnostic tool.
Adults may have a decreased level of skeletal muscle and increased belly fat. They also might be at risk for early-onset osteoporosis. Adults can have low levels of skeletal muscle, insulin resistance, and early-onset osteoporosis.
Benefits and Use
HGH stimulates growth in almost every tissue and organ of the body. HGH is best known for its ability to promote growth in cartilage and bones, particularly during adolescence. It is used most commonly to treat low growth in children and adults.
Children and adults can have special blood tests to detect deficiencies in human growth hormone. Injections of human growth hormones can not only improve short stature, but they also protect fractures, increase energy, improve exercise capacity, and lower the risk of developing future heart disease.
HGH has been anecdotally praised for its anti-aging properties, but this claim is not supported by research.
Side effects of HGH can be experienced by up to 30% of HGH users.
- Nerve, joint or muscle pain
- Fluid retention or swelling of the joints
- Carpal tunnel syndrome
- Tingling and numbness of the skin
- High levels of cholesterol
- High blood sugar levels
- Gynecomastia is an increase in breast size in men.
- HGH Doping and Misuse
Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is used by some athletes to enhance their athletic performance and gain a competitive edge. Using rhGH can not only increase muscle mass but also improve recovery. 5 This drug has been used by swimmers as well as athletes who participate in major sporting events.
Since 1989, the International Olympic Committee and the World Anti-Doping Agency have placed HGH on their list of prohibited compounds. This was because it became clear that hGH could be easily obtained on both the black and regular markets through the development of biotechnology products that are based on the Recombination of DNA.
It has been banned by several sports leagues, including the National Football League and Major League Baseball.
Safety of HGH
HGH can cause side effects, as we have already mentioned. HGH can also be injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly, which could cause injury to the injection site. You may also find HGH on the streets mixed with other drugs, increasing your chance of having a bad outcome.
HGH should be administered only under the supervision of a healthcare professional. Consult a healthcare professional if you’re considering using HGH. HGH should only ever be used for medical conditions that require it.